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FEDERAL EDUCATION AID IS A PITTANCE

Feb 11, 2016 by

PITTANCE

 

Federal Education Aid Is a Pittance

 

 

By Henry W. Burke

 

2.11.16

 

 

The total education finance amount for U.S. public schools is $597,930 million ($597.9 billion).

 

The overall federal contribution is $54,367 million ($54.4 billion). 

 

This means the federal government contributes only 9.1 % of the total education amount.

 

 

Federal funding is nice when you are getting it, but what happens when the flow stops?  States and local governmental agencies got used to the Stimulus funds during 2009 and 2010. 

 

Now that the Stimulus funds are depleted, states and cities are running deficits and are being forced to lay off workers.  In the same way, Race to the Top (RTTT) money is temporary, but the “pain” of Common Core Standards will last for many years to come!

 

The U.S. Department of Education has expanded tremendously since it was created in 1979, growing from $11.5 billion in 1980 to $67 billion in 2015.  The bloated bureaucracy has added layer upon layer of red tape on the states and school districts, requiring the education leaders to comply with more than 150 federal education programs.  If that was not bad enough, the recently passed Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) adds new education programs and expands federal control and paperwork requirements even more. 

 

How much education money is your state receiving from the federal government?  This report clearly answers the question.

 

On 2.1.16, Richard Innes of the Bluegrass Institute published an excellent article entitled “Education Feeding at the Federal Trough.”  Mr. Innes determined that the best available source to compare education funding in the 50 states was the U.S. Census Bureau’s “Public Education Finances” documents.  Richard Innes utilized the latest Census Bureau edition, which was issued in June 2015 (for Fiscal Year 2013).  The Bluegrass Institute article includes an insightful Table titled “Elementary and Secondary School System Finances… for Fiscal Year 2013.” 

http://www.bipps.org/education-feeding-at-the-federal-trough/

http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/13f33pub.pdf

 

The following report is based on the Richard Innes article and the U.S. Census Bureau document.

 

Notes on Census Bureau Report (direct quotes):

 

  1. Elementary-Secondary Education

          This report covers financial activity for the operation and support of public school systems providing elementary and/or secondary programs. These activities include the instruction of prekindergarten through grade 12 children, as well as support activities, such as guidance counseling, administration, transportation, plant operation and maintenance, and food services.

 

  1. Fiscal Year

          With the exception of school systems in Alabama, the District of Columbia, Nebraska, Texas, and Washington, the 2013 fiscal year for school systems in all states began on July 1, 2012, and ended on June 30, 2013. The fiscal year for school systems in Alabama and the District of Columbia ran from October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013. The fiscal year for school systems in Nebraska, Texas, and Washington ran from September 1, 2012, through August 31, 2013. Survey data are not adjusted to conform school systems to a uniform fiscal year.

 

  1. Current Dollars

          The statistics in this report are presented in current dollars. They have not been adjusted for price and wage changes occurring through the years.

 

  1. Educational Revenue from Federal State, and Local Sources

          In this report, the tables containing revenue data refer to revenue from federal, state, and local government sources. “Revenue from federal sources” includes monies passed through state governments, as well as federal outlays directly received. “Revenue from state sources” consists only of amounts originating from state governments. “Revenue from local sources” is comprised of revenue raised locally—including taxes, charges, and miscellaneous revenues.

 

The statistics represent data for public independent and dependent school systems.  The figures include the finances of charter schools whose charters are held directly by a government agency.  The source for all figures is the U.S. Census Bureau.

 

In Fiscal Year 2013, the United States spent $597.9 billion ($597,930 million) on education.  The breakdown includes $54.4 billion ($54,367 million) by the federal government, $272.9 billion ($272,917 million) by the states, and $270.6 billion ($270,646 million) by local entities.  This translates to 9.1 % by the federal government, 45.6 % by state governments, and 45.3 % by local entities.

 

By contributing only 9 % of the total education expense, the federal government exercises tremendous control over the states and the local school districts.  Financing of education in this country is provided primarily at the state and local levels.  The figures in the Census Bureau document prove this is true.   

 

All figures in this report (except for Revenue per Pupil and Percentages) are in millions of dollars ($ Millions).

 

 

Explanation for Table R1:

Because there are numerous statistics in the following tables, an explanation is in order.  Table R1 lists the education finance amounts from the three revenue sources – federal, state, and local.  Using Alabama as an example, the Total Revenue for Alabama (second column) is $7,153 million ($7.2 billion).  What are the sources for this $7.2 billion in education revenue?  The federal government contributes $812 million; the State of Alabama provides $3,898 million ($3.9 billion); and local government carries the balance of the education expense at $2,443 million ($2.4 billion).

[$812 million + $3,898 million + $2,443 million = $7,153 million]

 

 

Table R1 – K-12 Education Finances – Revenue Amounts (FY 2013)

 (Millions of Dollars)

 

State Total

Revenue

($Millions)

K-12 Revenue Source

($Millions)

Federal State Local
Alabama     7,153      812     3,898     2,443
Alaska     2,545      321     1,707        517
Arizona     8,098   1,178     2,934     3,986
Arkansas     5,051      572     3,847        632
California   66,446   7,836   35,141   23,469
Colorado     8,782      696     3,694     4,392
Connecticut   10,107      435     3,870     5,802
Delaware     1,880      151     1,124        605
District of Columbia     1,300      130       —     1,170
Florida   24,674   3,027     9,455   12,192
Georgia   17,449   1,806     7,577     8,066
Hawaii     2,332      311     1,963          58
Idaho     2,016      239     1,278        499
Illinois   29,392   2,311   10,393   16,688
Indiana   11,989      980     7,504     3,505
Iowa     6,030      459     3,118     2,453
Kansas     5,666      421     3,194     2,051
Kentucky     7,215      868     3,961     2,386
Louisiana     8,084   1,229     3,370     3,485
Maine     2,604      196     1,047     1,361
Maryland   13,810      828     6,094     6,888
Massachusetts   15,980      818     6,429     8,733
Michigan   17,380   1,637     9,882     5,861
Minnesota   10,705      648     6,793     3,264
Mississippi     4,433     708     2,213     1,512
Missouri   10,030      894     4,235     4,901
Montana     1,652      211        788        653
Nebraska     3,795      366     1,218     2,211
Nevada     4,130      392     2,556     1,182
New Hampshire     2,876      164     1,020     1,692
New Jersey   27,028   1,121   10,458   15,449
New Mexico     3,519      519     2,402        598
New York   59,399   3,336   23,633   32,430
North Carolina   12,729   1,580     7,892     3,257
North Dakota     1,362      146        686        530
Ohio   21,731   1,721     8,991   11,019
Oklahoma     5,876      716     2,890     2,270
Oregon     6,022      472     3,042     2,508
Pennsylvania   27,024   2,049     9,765   15,210
Rhode Island     2,261      193        842     1,226
South Carolina     8,242      814     3,819     3,609
South Dakota     1,314      195        408        711
Tennessee     8,885   1,166     4,097     3,622
Texas   49,909   5,696   19,238   24,975
Utah     4,302      410     2,236     1,656
Vermont     1,619      115     1,432          72
Virginia   14,984   1,109     5,874     8,001
Washington   12,150   1,042     7,160     3,948
West Virginia     3,475      383     2,028     1,064
Wisconsin   10,802      827     4,840     5,135
Wyoming     1,693      113        881        699
  Totals 597,930 54,367 272,917 270,646

 

Source:

Richard Innes, Bluegrass Institute, “Education Feeding at the Federal Trough,” 2.1.16.

http://www.bipps.org/education-feeding-at-the-federal-trough/

 

U.S. Census Bureau, “Public Education Finances: 2013,” Issued June 2015, Table 1. 

http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/13f33pub.pdf

 

Comments on Table R1:

  1. Table R1 shows Education Finance figures for Elementary and Secondary schools.  Finance statistics from the three sources of funds are listed (federal, state, and local).
  2. The Total Education Finance amount for U.S. public schools is $597,930 million ($597.9 billion).
  3. The overall U.S. federal contribution is $54,367 million ($54.4 billion). 
  4. Federal Revenue ranges from $113 million for Wyoming to $7,836 million ($7.8 billion) for California. 
  5. The Total Revenue for Wyoming is $1,693 million ($1.7 billion); the Total Revenue for California is $66,446 million ($66.4 billion). 

 

 

Explanation for Table R2:

Table R2 shows the percentages contributed by each of the three revenue sources.  Again with Alabama as an example, the federal government contributes 11.4 % of the total; the State of Alabama provides 54.5 % of the total; and local government carries the remaining 34.1 % of the Total Revenue.  The percentages are calculated as follows (revenue in $ Millions):

[812/7,153 = 11.4 %; 3,898/7,153 = 54.5 %; and 2,443/7,153 = 34.1 %]

[11.4 % + 54.5 % + 34.1 % = 100.0 %]

States are ranked from highest percentage (Rank No. 1) to lowest percentage (Rank No. 51) of federal contribution.  Alabama is ranked No. 17 for its 11.4 % federal contribution.

 

 

Table R2 – K-12 Education Finances: Percentages & Rank (FY 2013)

 

State Percentage Contribution Federal Percentage

Rank

Federal State Local
Alabama    11.4%    54.5%    34.1%         17
Alaska    12.6%    67.1%    20.3%           9
Arizona    14.6%    36.2%    49.2%           5
Arkansas    11.3%    76.2%    12.5%         18
California    11.8%    52.9%    35.3%         15
Colorado      7.9%    42.1%    50.0%         33
Connecticut      4.3%    38.3%    57.4%         50
Delaware      8.0%    59.8%    32.2%         32
District of Columbia    10.0%      —    90.0%         22
Florida    12.3%    38.3%    49.4%         11
Georgia    10.4%    43.4%    46.2%         21
Hawaii    13.3%    84.2%      2.5%           6
Idaho    11.8%    63.4%    24.8%         14
Illinois      7.9%    35.3%    56.8%         35
Indiana      8.2%    62.6%    29.2%         31
Iowa      7.6%    51.7%    40.7%         38
Kansas      7.4%    56.4%    36.2%         41
Kentucky    12.0%    54.9%    33.1%         13
Louisiana    15.2%    41.7%    43.1%           2
Maine      7.5%    40.2%    52.3%         40
Maryland      6.0%    44.1%    49.9%        46
Massachusetts      5.1%    40.2%    54.7%         49
Michigan      9.4%    56.9%    33.7%         27
Minnesota      6.1%    63.4%    30.5%         45
Mississippi    16.0%    49.9%    34.1%           1
Missouri      8.9%    42.2%    48.9%         28
Montana    12.8%    47.7%    39.5%           8
Nebraska      9.6%    32.1%    58.3%         24
Nevada      9.5%    61.9%    28.6%         26
New Hampshire      5.7%    35.5%    58.8%         47
New Jersey      4.1%    38.7%    57.2%         51
New Mexico    14.8%    68.2%    17.0%           4
New York      5.6%    39.8%    54.6%         48
North Carolina    12.4%    62.0%    25.6%         10
North Dakota    10.7%    50.3%    39.0%         20
Ohio      7.9%    41.4%    50.7%         34
Oklahoma    12.2%    49.2%    38.6%         12
Oregon      7.8%    50.5%    41.7%         36
Pennsylvania      7.6%    36.1%    56.3%         39
Rhode Island      8.6%    37.2%    54.2%         30
South Carolina      9.9%    46.3%    43.8%         23
South Dakota    14.8%    31.0%    54.2%           3
Tennessee    13.1%    46.1%    40.8%           7
Texas    11.4%    38.6%    50.0%         16
Utah      9.5%    52.0%    38.5%         25
Vermont      7.1%    88.4%      4.5%         43
Virginia      7.4%    39.2%    53.4%         42
Washington      8.6%    58.9%    32.5%         29
West Virginia    11.0%    58.3%    30.7%         19
Wisconsin      7.7%    44.8%    47.5%         37
Wyoming      6.7%    52.0%    41.3%         44
  Totals      9.1%    45.6%    45.3%         —

 

Source:

Richard Innes, Bluegrass Institute, “Education Feeding at the Federal Trough,” 2.1.16.

http://www.bipps.org/education-feeding-at-the-federal-trough/

 

U.S. Census Bureau, “Public Education Finances: 2013,” Issued June 2015, Table 1. 

http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/13f33pub.pdf

 

Comments on Table R2:

  1. Table R2 lists the Percentage Contributions for the three Revenue sources (federal, state, and local) whereas Table R1 only showed the Revenue Amounts.  Additionally Table R2 shows the state rank for federal revenue percentage contribution.
  2. The percentage contributed by federal sources ranges from 4.1 % for New Jersey (Rank No. 51) to 16.0 % for Mississippi (Rank No. 1). 
  3. California received the most federal revenue ($7,836 million in Table R1), but was ranked No. 15 (at 11.8 %) in percentage contribution.
  4. Texas is ranked No. 16 at 11.4 % federal contribution toward education finances.  Texas received the second highest Revenue amount at $5,696 million (in Table R1).   5.  For an extremely small percentage of 4.1 %, the federal government exercises much control over the New Jersey schools.
  5. The average percentage contributed by the federal government is 9.1 % (for all 50 states plus the District of Columbia).
  6. At the overall percentage contribution of 9.1 %, the federal government controls all of the public schools in the country.
  7. Clearly education finance in the U.S. is primarily funded at the state and local levels (91 % overall).

 

 

Explanation for Table R3:

Table R3 shows the sources of federal revenue for the U.S. and for two states (Nebraska and Texas); this gives the reader a sense for the size of the well-known federal programs.  Most of the federal revenue is distributed through the states.  For Nebraska, these amounts include: $91 million for Title 1, $80 million for Special Education, $76 million for Child Nutrition, $3 million for Vocational and $63 million in Other.  Direct Federal Aid accounts for $53 million of the Total Federal Revenue.  Nebraska received $366 million in federal education revenue.

[$91 million + $80 million + $76 million + $3 million + $63 million =$313 million] and [$313 million + $53 million = $366 million]

 

Table R3 – K-12 Federal Revenue Sources: For NE and TX (FY 2013)

Federal Sources United States

($Millions)

Nebraska

($Millions)

Texas

($Millions)

Distributed Through State      
  Title 1     14,348       91     1,398
  Special Education     11,127       80        823
  Child Nutrition     13,757       76     1,723
  Vocational          553         3          53
  Other     10,085       63     1,157
    Total     49,870     313     5,154
       
Direct Federal Aid      
  Impact Aid       1,412       25       116
  Other       3,085       28       426
    Total       4,497       53       542
       
    Total Federal Revenue     54,367     366    5,696

 

Source:

U.S. Census Bureau, “Public Education Finances: 2013,” Issued June 2015, Table 2. 

 http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/13f33pub.pdf

 

Comments on Table R3:

  1. Table R3 provides some insight into the various federal programs that fund school education.  The United States column shows the figures for the whole country; the next two columns provide information on Nebraska and Texas.
  2. Four specific programs are distributed through the State (Title 1, Special Education, Child Nutrition, and Vocational).
  3. Nebraska received $91 million for Title 1, $80 million for Special Education, $76 million for Child Nutrition, and $3 million for Vocational programs.
  4. Texas received $1,398 million for Title 1, $823 million for Special Education, $1,723 million for Child Nutrition, and $53 million for Vocational programs.

 

Explanation for Table R4:

How do you compare education revenue amounts between the states?  The typical common denominator is the number of students.  Table R4 shows the education finance amounts per pupil for each of the states.  For Alabama, this figure is $9,607 per student.  This Table introduces the new concept of “Current Spending.”  For Alabama, the Current Spending figure is $8,755 per pupil.  For every state, Current Spending per Pupil is somewhat less than Finance Revenue per Pupil. For the U.S. as a whole, Current Spending per Pupil is about 86 % of Finance Revenue per Pupil.  On a per student basis:

[$10,700/$12,380 = 86.4 %]

 

Table R4– K-12 Education Finances & Spending: Amount Per Pupil

(FY 2013)

State Finance

Amount

Per Pupil

($)

State

Rank

For Finance

Spending

Amount

Per Pupil

($)

State

Rank

For Spending

     
Alabama     9,607       42     8,755       39
Alaska   19,415         5   18,175         2
Arizona     8,599       49     7,208       49
Arkansas   10,573       36     9,394       34
California   10,702       34     9,220       36
Colorado   10,319       39     8,647       40
Connecticut   19,519         4   16,631         5
Delaware   15,837       12   13,833       11
District of Columbia   29,427         1   17,953         3
Florida     9,207       44     8,433       42
Georgia   10,370       38     9,099       37
Hawaii   12,621       19   11,823       17
Idaho     7,408       51     6,791       50
Illinois   14,200       14   12,288       14
Indiana   11,955       26     9,566       31
Iowa   12,072       24   10,313       27
Kansas   11,596       28     9,828       28
Kentucky   10,533       37     9,316       35
Louisiana   12,045       25   10,490       26
Maine   14,101       15   12,147       15
Maryland   16,072       11   13,829       12
Massachusetts   17,315         8   14,515         8
Michigan   12,584       20   10,948       24
Minnesota   13,340       18   11,089       21
Mississippi     8,995       45     8,130       47
Missouri   11,179       32     9,597       30
Montana   11,566       29   10,625       25
Nebraska   12,514       21   11,579       18
Nevada     9,566       43     8,399       44
New Hampshire   15,320       13   13,721       13
New Jersey   20,191         3   17,572         4
New Mexico   10,753       33     9,012       38
New York   22,587         2   19,818         1
North Carolina     8,670       48     8,390       43
North Dakota   13,478       16   11,980       16
Ohio   13,467       17   11,197       19
Oklahoma     8,751       47     7,672       48
Oregon   10,677       35     9,543       32
Pennsylvania   16,644         9   13,864       10
Rhode Island   16,580       10   14,415         9
South Carolina   11,412       31     9,514       33
South Dakota   10,087       41     8,470       41
Tennessee     8,953       46     8,208       46
Texas   10,191       40     8,299       45
Utah     7,650       50     6,555       51
Vermont   18,103         7   16,377         6
Virginia   11,846       27   10,960       23
Washington   11,562       30     9,672       29
West Virginia   12,309       23   11,132       20
Wisconsin   12,506       22   11,071       22
Wyoming   18,498         6   15,700         7
  U.S.   12,380     —   10,700         —

Source:

U.S. Census Bureau, “Public Education Finances: 2013,” Issued June 2015, Table 11. 

 http://www2.census.gov/govs/school/13f33pub.pdf

 

Comments on Table R4:

  1. This Table shows the typical Education Finance numbers; and it also includes “Current Education Spending” figures (in the right two columns).
  2. The columns provide the Finance Amount per Pupil and Spending Amount per Pupil for each of the states.
  3. The highest Finance Amount per Pupil was the District of Columbia at $29,427 per student (Rank No. 1).
  4. The highest Spending Amount per Pupil was New York at $19,818 per student (Rank No. 1).
  5. The lowest Finance Amount per Pupil was Idaho at $7,408 per Pupil (Rank No. 51).
  6. The lowest Spending Amount per Pupil was Utah at $6,555 per student (Rank No. 51).
  7. The average Finance Amount per Pupil was $12,380 per student (all of U.S.); the average Spending Amount per Pupil was $10,700 per student (all 51 “states”).

 

The Federal Government Bribed the States in Race to the Top

The federal government successfully persuaded (bribed) the states to adopt the Common Core Standards through the Race to the Top (RTTT) scheme.  With the RTTT, the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE) offered the states monetary awards if they were “winners” in the RTTT competition.

Henry W. Burke and Donna Garner addressed this subject in a 2.24.11 report entitled “Let’s Get Off the National Standards Train.”  The following information appeared in this report:

 

Table R5 — Race to the Top (RTTT) Awards

(Rank, Awards, Award / Student / Year)

 

State Phase 1

Rank

Phase 2

Rank

RTTT Award Enrollment

(No. Students)

Award/Stud./

Year

Delaware     1    —  $119,122,128     125,000      $238
District of Columbia   16     6    $74,998,962       70,000      $268
Florida     4     4  $700,000,000  2,771,000        $63
Georgia     3     8  $399,952,650  1,735,000        $58
Hawaii   22     3    $74,934,761     174,000      $108
Maryland    —     6  $249,999,182     828,000        $75
Massachusetts   13     1  $250,000,000     941,000        $66
New York   15     2  $696,646,000   2,669,000        $65
North Carolina   12     9  $399,465,769   1,520,000        $66
Ohio   10   10  $400,000,000   1,802,000        $55
Rhode Island     8     5    $75,000.000      142,000      $132
Tennessee     2    —  $500,741,220   1,006,000      $124
Total U.S.     $3,940,861,000 13,783,000        $71

 

Source:

U.S.D.O.E.

2.21.11

 

http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/phase1-applications/score-summary.pdf

 

http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/phase2-applications/summary.pdf

 

http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/phase2-applications/index.html

 

http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_034.asp?referrer=list

 

Notes:

  1. The latest available USDOE enrollment numbers are “Projected Fall 2009.”
  2. Award per student per year is based on the 4-year award period.
  3. The Total Award / Student / Year of $71 is based on the total RTTT awards and total students for the 12 RTTT winning states.

 

For the enrollment numbers in the Table, we used the latest available figures from the USDOE (“Projected Fall 2009”).  These numbers include public elementary and secondary schools (K-12) for each state.

 

The “Award / Student / Year” column needs some explanation.  Let’s use Delaware as an example.  Delaware placed No. 1 in Phase 1 and received a grant for $119,122,128; the state has 125,000 students in its K-12 public schools.  [$119,122,128 divided by 125,000 students = $953 / student]  For each state, the award period is four years.  [$953 per student divided by 4 years = $238 / student / year]  Then the Award per Student per Year = $238.

 

The Award per Student per Year allows us to keep education spending in perspective.  Public school education in this country has always been funded primarily at the local and state levels.  The federal funding is relatively minor.

 

Let’s take Massachusetts as an example.  The state received $250 million in federal RTTT.  That amount may seem large, but it represents only about 1/144 (0.70 %) of Massachusetts’ overall school funding for the four-year period.  Most states have similar percentages. 

 

The Texas Education Agency (TEA) is charged with the task of collecting and reporting state education data, much of which has to do with local, state, and federal funding sources.   The TEA recently produced the 2009-10 Texas Education Agency Pocket Edition of Texas Public School Statistics (published in December 2010).

 

According to the TEA’s Pocket Edition, the per-pupil spending figure for Texas is $11,567.  This figure includes the total per-pupil spending (i.e., expenditures) including local, state, and federal dollars.

 

Total Revenue Per Pupil = $9,965.

Total Expenditures Per Pupil = $11,567.   This figure includes local revenue (47.1%), state (42.9%), and federal revenue (10.0%).

 

Federal funding is nice when you are getting it, but what happens when the flow stops?  States and local governmental agencies got used to the Stimulus funds during 2009 and 2010. 

 

Now that the Stimulus funds are essentially depleted, states and cities are running deficits and are being forced to lay off workers.  In the same way, RTTT money is temporary, but the “pain” of Common Core Standards will last for many years to come!

==============================

 

Comments on Table R5:

As the above report indicated, the federal government persuaded the 12 RTTT winning states to adopt the Common Core Standards for a paltry $71 per student per year (overall for the 12 states in Table R5). 

[The other 34 states adopted Common Core, but received zero dollars in RTTT funds; these states are the real losers.  The academic term “suckers” quickly comes to mind.]

 

Even the highest per student amount was a token award.  The District of Columbia (DC) received the highest amount per student at $268 per student per year.  (Delaware was not far behind at $238 per student.)

 

If these amounts are compared to the figures in Table R4, the results are absolutely astounding!  When the District of Columbia received the $75 million RTTT award, the district thought it had struck a gold mine.  The $268 per student per year was not much at the time, but the school officials loved the new federal funds.  That $75 million amount has been spent and the Common Core costs will continue for many years to come. 

 

Now compare this token amount with the Table R4 finance amount of $29,427 per student for DC.  The $268 per student RTTT Award is “just a little smaller” than the $29,427 Finance Amount per student.  Federal bribery can be pretty cheap!

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

The Total Education Finance amount for U.S. public schools is $597,930 million ($597.9 billion).

 

The overall U.S. federal contribution is $54,367 million ($54.4 billion).  The overall federal contribution percentage is 9.1 %.

 

By contributing only 9 % of the total education funding, the federal government exercises tremendous control over the states and the local school districts. 

 

The percentage contributed by federal sources ranges from 4.1 % for New Jersey (Rank No. 51) to 16.0 % for Mississippi (Rank No. 1). 

 

Obviously, financing of education in this country is provided primarily at the state and local levels.

 

Federal education aid is a pittance!

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Bio for Henry W. Burke

Henry Burke is a Civil Engineer with a B.S.C.E. and M.S.C.E.  He has been a Registered Professional Engineer (P.E.) for 37 years and has worked as a Civil Engineer in construction for over 40 years. 

Mr. Burke had a successful 27-year career with a large construction company. 

Henry Burke serves as a full-time volunteer to oversee various construction projects. He has written numerous articles on education, engineering, construction, politics, taxes, and the economy.

Henry W. Burke

E-mail:  hwburke@cox.net

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