ELAR-TEKS SECOND READING DRAFT

Feb 27, 2017 by

To Texas State Board of Education members, Texas Commissioner of Education, and Texas Education Agency staffers

Date:  2.27.17

From: Donna Garner

Re:  MY RECOMMENDATIONS – ENTIRE TEXT FOR SECOND READING, ELAR-TEKS – K-5 — 2.26.17

 

I am very pleased with the content of the rule-text version of the K-8 ELAR/TEKS — Second Reading to be voted on April 21, 2017. This latest version is much stronger than previous drafts and indicates that each successive draft is growing better and better.

 

So far, I have gone through Grades K-5 and have recommended the following changes (posted below).  My recommendations are italicized.. My deletions are indicated by strikethroughs.

 

I have also included links to the very important NICHD empirical, peer-reviewed, replicated reading research which our ELAR/TEKS document must follow to guarantee our Texas students have the best chance to become proficient readers.  This NICHD study is the most comprehensive and scientific reading research that our nation has ever produced, and the findings have been proven over time to be very accurate.

 

As soon as I finish the Grades 6 – 8 Second Reading ELAR/TEKS draft, I will send you my recommendations.

 

I trust that you will take my concerns and suggestions seriously and will turn them into amendments to be passed at the April 21 SBOE meeting when the Second Reading of the ELAR/TEKS vote is taken. I believe that Texas is on track to have the strongest ELAR curriculum standards in the entire United States.

 

Donna Garner

Wgarner1@hot.rr.com

 

====================

 

 

[The word “handwriting” means “to write something by hand.” (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/handwritten)  This term would include both print and cursive.  In this document, when we are referring to both print and cursive, the word “handwriting” is fine to use. However, when we are referring to either print or cursive, we need to use the specific term to avoid confusion in terms.  Cursive “is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cursive).  The word “print” means “Writing in print…a handwriting method using block letters, instead of cursive letters https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Print).]

 

Text of Proposed New 19 TAC

Chapter 110. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading

Subchapter A. Elementary

 

[If you should decide to utilize any of my recommended changes to the Introduction, these changes will also need to be implemented in the Introductions throughout K- 8.]

 

  • 110.1. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Elementary, Adopted 2017.

(a)        The provisions of this section and §§110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b)       No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading as adopted in §§110.2-110.7 of this title.

(c)        If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d)       If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§110.2-110.7 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e)        Sections 110.11-110.16 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§110.2-110.7 of this title.

  • 110.2. English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a)        Introduction.

 

[It is important to help people know from the very beginning the framework organization of this document.   I believe the following terms need to be clarified in each of the Introductions.]  

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the four interconnected “domains” nature of listening, speaking, reading , and writing through the seven integrated “strands” of (1) developing and sustaining foundational language skills; (2) comprehension; (3) response; (4) multiple genres; (5) author’s craft; (6) composition; and (7) inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and  writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, importance, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills.

 

[I do not like the way this next sentence is worded because it seems to require a certain type of methodology to teach reading — using manipulatives. Please insert the words “can be.”

  

Decoding can be internalized when tactile, kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

 

[I believe it needs to be made clear, for instance, that once students learn cursive (and all the rest of the basic grammar/usage skills), they are expected to utilize those skills throughout their school years. Please add this statement somewhere in the Introductions for each grade level:  “It is expected that skills learned by students at each grade level are to be utilized in the progressive grade levels.”]

 

 

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively and ask questions to understand information;

(B)       follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C)       share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of the English language;

(D)       work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E)        develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself using common greetings and expressing needs and wants.

 

========

DISCUSSION OF PHONEMIC AWARENESS AND PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

 

The importance of phonemic awareness (PA) is one of the main findings of the NICHD’s empirical, independent, peer-reviewed reading research in which Marilyn J. Adams and Barbara Foorman played a huge part.

(http://www.readingrockets.org/article/phonemic-awareness-young-children)

 

Please read Chapter 2 starting on 2-1 of the  2.27.2000 — Report from the NICHD National Reading Panel — This explains why phonemic awareness is the scientific basis for the emergent reader’s success.

https://www.nichd.nih.gov/research/supported/Pages/nrp.aspx

https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/documents/report.pdf

 

Our ELAR/TEKS document needs to help the emergent readers learn to develop phonemic awareness FIRST before going on into learning phonological awareness.

 

…Phonemic awareness refers to the specific ability to focus on and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.

Phonological awareness is a broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language – parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes.

Phonemic awareness refers to the specific ability to focus on and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. Phonemes are the smallest units comprising spoken language. Phonemes combine to form syllables and words. For example, the word ‘mat’ has three phonemes: /m/ /a/ /t/. There are 44 phonemes in the English language, including sounds represented by letter combinations such as /th/. Acquiring phonemic awareness is important because it is the foundation for spelling and word recognition skills. Phonemic awareness is one of the best predictors of how well children will learn to read during the first two years of school instruction.

Phonological awareness is a broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language – parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes.

 

Students at risk for reading difficulty often have lower levels of phonological awareness and phonemic awareness than do their classmates. The good news is that phonemic awareness and phonological awareness can be developed through a number of activities. 

(http://www.readingrockets.org/helping/target/phonologicalphonemic)

 

 

============

 

 

To make sure that this document is built upon the sound reading research science, we need to shore up the phonemic awareness (PA) elements. To give teachers time to teach those all- important PA elements, I have tried to delete some of the elements that I believe should be removed and have recommended elements that emphasize phonemic awareness. I have tried to check the present document to make sure the following recommended PA elements are not repetitious of what is already in the document.  Most phonemic awareness activities should be done orally.

 

Here are some phonemic awareness elements that need to be added into the document at appropriate places to strengthen students’ development of phonemic awareness.

 

Change the meaning of a sentence by changing a word.

Distinguish between long and short words (e.g., train, mosquito).

Segment orally a spoken phrase or sentence into words.

Give what is left after deleting a syllable of a multisyllabic word.

Determine whether words rhyme or not.

Generate rhyming words.

Identify the non-rhyming word from rhyming words in a group of three words.

Identify from a list of three words, those words that begin with the same sound.

Generate a word that has same beginning sound as a given word.

Identify, from a group of three words, the one that does NOT begin with the same sound.

Identify words that end with the same sound from a group of three words.

Select the odd word from a group of three words, two of which end with the same sound.

Identify words that have the same medial sound from a group of three words.

Select the odd word from a group of three words, two of which have the same medial sound.

Pronounce the sounds of a word to accentuate the individual phonemes.

Blend segmented phonemes of a word (e.g., b-a-g>bag) into a word.

Segment words into phonemes, clearly producing each individual sound.

Count the sounds in her/his own name.

 

 

 

 

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

 

(A)       demonstrate phonemic awareness/phonological awareness by:

(i)         identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii)        recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii)       identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv)       identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v)        blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi)       segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii)      blending spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words;

(viii)     blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words;

(ix)       manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word; and

(x)        segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

(B)       demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i)         identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii)        using letter-sound relationships to decode, including VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words;

(iii)       recognizing that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted such as it – pit – tip – tap; and

(iv)       identifying and reading at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C)       demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i)         spelling words with VC, CVC, and CCVC;

(ii)        spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iii)       spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D)       demonstrate print awareness by:

(i)         identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii)        holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii)       recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv)       recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v)        identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E)        develop handwriting by accurately forming    printing all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

 

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B)       use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C)       identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts with adult assistance independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

 

[The following elements are not age-appropriate for Kindergarten because children do not develop the ability to do abstract thinking until later in their elementary school years. 

(C)       make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G)       evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

 

[Too time consuming and do not leave time for the proper teaching of phonemic awareness.]

 

(B)       provide an oral or pictorial response to a text;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B)       identify and describe the main character(s);

(C)       describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D)       describe the setting.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of well-known children’s literature, including folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B)       discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C)       participate in and identify main characters in a play;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii)        titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii)       the steps in a sequence with adult assistance; and

(E)        recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(9)        Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       discuss with adult assistance the author’s purpose for writing text;

(B)       discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       discuss with adult assistance the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E)        listen to and experience first- and third-person point of view texts.

(10)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B)       develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C)       revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D)       edit drafts with adult assistance using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete sentences;

(ii)        verbs;

change a statement from present, to past, and to future tense.

(iii)       singular and plural nouns;

(iv)       descriptive adjectives;

(v)        subjective case pronouns;

(vi)       capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and name; and

(vii)      punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(E)        share writing.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B)       dictate or compose informational texts.

(12)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B)       develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C)       gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D)       demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E)        use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

  • 110.3. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

 

[If you should decide to utilize any of my recommended changes to the Kindergarten Introduction, these changes will also need to be implemented in the Introductions throughout Grades 1 – 8.]

 

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B)       follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C)       share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D)       work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E)        develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i)         producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii)        recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii)       distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable words;

(iv)       recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed;

(v)        blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words, including initial and/or final consonant blends;

(vi)       manipulating phonemes within base words; and

(vii)      segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes, including words with initial and/or final consonant blends;

(B)       demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i)         decoding words in isolation and in context by applying common letter sound correspondences;

(ii)        decoding words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii)       decoding words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including vowel digraphs and diphthongs; and r-controlled syllables;

(iv)       using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words and contractions;

(v)        decoding words with inflectional endings, including -ed, -s, and -es; and

(vi)       identifying and reading at least 100 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C)       demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i)         spelling words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams, and r-controlled syllables;

(ii)        spelling words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii)       spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iv)       spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D)       demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E)        alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

 

(F)        develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly (e.g., using consistent slant, correct letter formation, correct size), leaving appropriate spaces between words.

 

distinguish printing from cursive writing.

 

identify appropriate times to use printed writing (e.g., maps, charts) or cursive.

 

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B)       use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C)       identify the meaning of words with the affixes -s, -ed, and -ing; and

(D)       identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G)       evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B)       write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B)       describe the main character(s) and how their feelings and actions change;

(C)       describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D)       describe the setting.

(9)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of well-known children’s literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B)       discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C)       identify the elements of a play such as characters and setting;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii)        features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii)       temporal sequence and description; and

[The term “temporal sequence” needs to be simplified.]

 

(E)        recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(10)      Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       discuss the author’s purpose for writing text;

(B)       discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       discuss with adult assistance the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E)        listen to and begin to identify the first- and third-person point of view in texts.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B)       develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i)         organizing with structure; and

(ii)        developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C)       revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii)        past and present verbs;

generate sentences with action verbs.

 

begin using the correct forms (person, number, tense) for the verbs “come,” “see,” “go,” “do,” “bring,” “be,” and “have.”

 

(iii)       singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv)       descriptive adjectives;

(v)        adverbs that convey time;

(vi)       prepositions;

(vii)      subjective case pronouns;

(viii)     capitalization for the beginning of sentences and the pronoun “I”; and

(ix)       punctuation marks at the end of declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences; and

(E)        publish and share own compositions writing.

(12)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B)       dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C)       dictate or compose correspondence.

(13)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B)       develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C)       identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D)       demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E)        use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

  • 110.4. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

 

[If you should decide to utilize any of my recommended changes to the Kindergarten Introduction, these changes will also need to be implemented in the Introductions throughout Grades 1 – 8.]

 

 

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B)       follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C)       share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D)       work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E)        develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate phonological awareness by

(i)         distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one syllable and multi-syllable words;

(ii)        producing a series of rhyming words;

(iii)       recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed; and

(iv)       manipulating phonemes within base words;

(B)       demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i)         decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends;

(ii)        decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii)       decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iv)       decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(v)        decoding words using knowledge of syllable division such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi)       decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and

(vii)      identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C)       demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i)         spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii)        spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii)       spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(iv)       spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v)        spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including words with double consonants in the middle of the word; and

(vi)       spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and

(D)       alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(E)        develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B)       use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C)       identify the meaning of words with affixes un-, re-, -ly, -er, and -est (comparative and superlative), and -ion/tion/sion; and

(D)       identify and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)       evaluate details to determine key ideas;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B)       write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B)       describe the internal and external traits of the main character(s);

(C)       describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D)       describe the importance of the setting.

(9)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of well-known children’s literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B)       explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C)       identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the central or main idea with adult assistance;

(ii)        features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii)       chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly; and

(E)        recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do.

(10)      Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       discuss the author’s purpose for writing text;

(B)       discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       discuss the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E)        identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F)        explain the use of repetition.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B)       develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i)         organizing with structure; and

(ii)        developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C)       revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii)        past, present, and future verbs;

find the subject or subjects of a verb.

 

(iii)       singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv)       descriptive adjectives and articles;

(v)        adverbs that convey time;

(vi)       prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii)      objective case pronouns;

(viii)     capitalization of months, days of the week, and the salutation and conclusion of a letter; and

 

distinguish between declarative and interrogative sentences;  use correct end punctuation.

 

(ix)       end punctuation and apostrophes; and

(E)        publish and share own compositions.

(12)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B)       compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C)       compose correspondence.

(13)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B)       develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C)       identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D)       identify primary and secondary sources;

(E)        demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F)        cite sources appropriately; and

(G)       use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

  • 110.5. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

 

[If you should decide to utilize any of my recommended changes to the Kindergarten Introduction, these changes will also need to be implemented in the Introductions throughout Grades 1 – 8.]

 

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B)       follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C)       speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D)       work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E)        develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i)         decoding multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns such as eigh, ough, and en;

(ii)        decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii)       decoding compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv)       decoding words using knowledge of syllable division such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV with accent shifts;

(v)        decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(vi)       decoding words using knowledge of changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vii)      identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B)       demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i)         spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii)        spelling homophones;

(iii)       spelling compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv)       spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v)        spelling words using knowledge of syllable division such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi)       spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vii)      spelling words with changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C)       alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D)       write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B)       use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C)       identify the meaning of words with affixes such as im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, and -ful; and

(D)       identify and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in a text.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)       evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)       write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G)       discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       infer the theme of a work, distinguish the theme from the topic;

(B)       explain the relationship among the major and minor characters;

(C)       analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the problem, and the resolution; and

(D)       explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of well-known children’s literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B)       explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C)       identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the central idea;

(ii)        features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding of the text; and

(iii)       cause and effect and problem and solution; and

(E)        recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i)         identifying the claim;

(ii)        distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii)       identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10)      Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       explain the author’s purpose and message within a text;

(B)       explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       explain the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       describe how the author’s use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E)        identify the use of literary devices, including first and third-person point of view in texts;

(F)        discuss how the author’s use of language contributes to voice; and

(G)       explain the use of repetition.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B)       develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)         organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii)        developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C)       revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii)        past, present, and future verbs;

recognize forms of “to be,” and locate predicate nouns and predicate pronouns when present.

(iii)       singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv)       descriptive and limiting adjectives;

(v)        adverbs that convey time and manner;

(vi)       prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii)      possessive pronouns;

(viii)     coordinating conjunctions to form compound predicates, subjects, and sentences;

(ix)       capitalization of official titles of people, holidays, and geographical names and places; and

(x)        punctuation marks, including apostrophes in contractions and possessives, commas in a series, and dates; and

(E)        publish own written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       compose literary texts, including personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B)       compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C)       compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)       compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)       develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C)       identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D)       identify primary and secondary sources;

(E)        demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F)        recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G)       create a works cited page; and

(H)       use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

  • 110.6. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

 

[If you should decide to utilize any of my recommended changes to the Kindergarten Introduction, these changes will also need to be implemented in the Introductions throughout Grades 1 – 8.]

 

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B)       follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C)       express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D)       work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i)         decoding words with specific orthographic patterns and rules, including regular and irregular plurals;

(ii)        decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii)       decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division such as VV;

(iv)       decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(v)        decoding words using knowledge of changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vi)       identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B)       demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i)         spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii)        spelling more difficult homophones;

(iii)       spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv)       spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v)        spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi)       spelling words with changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C)       write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B)       use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C)       determine the meaning of words with affixes such as mis-, sub-, -ment, and -ity/ty and roots such as auto, graph, and meter; and

(D)       identify, explain, and spell homophones correctly such as reign/rain.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)       evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)       write a response to compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G)       discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B)       explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C)       analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D)       explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of well-known children’s literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B)       explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C)       identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the central idea;

(ii)        features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding of the text; and

(iii)       compare and contrast; and

(E)        recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i)         identifying the claim;

(ii)        explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii)       identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10)      Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       explain the author’s purpose and message within a text;

(B)       explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       analyze the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       describe how the author’s use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E)        identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first, third, third-person limited, and omniscient point of view in text;

(F)        discuss how the author’s use of language contributes to voice; and

(G)       identify the use of hyperbole.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B)       develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)         organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii)        developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C)       revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii)        irregular verbs;

 

find linking verbs and any predicate adjectives that may follow.

 

(iii)       singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv)       descriptive adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v)        adverbs that convey frequency and intensity;

(vi)       prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii)      reflexive pronouns;

(viii)     coordinating conjunctions to form compound predicates, subjects, and sentences;

(ix)       capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities; and

(x)        punctuation marks, including commas in compound sentences and quotation marks in dialogue; and

(E)        publish own written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B)       compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C)       compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)       compose correspondence that requests information.

(13)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)       develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C)       identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D)       identify primary and secondary sources;

(E)        demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F)        recognize the differences between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G)       develop a bibliography; and

(H)       use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

  • 110.7. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

 

[If you should decide to utilize any of my recommended changes to the Kindergarten Introduction, these changes will also need to be implemented in the Introductions throughout Grades 1 – 8.]

 

 

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B)       follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C)       give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D)       work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonemic awareness, phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i)         decoding consonant changes, including (t) to (sh) such as in select and selection and (k) to (sh) such as music and musician;

(ii)        decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllable;, vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii)       decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(iv)       decoding words using advanced knowledge of the influence of prefixes and suffixes on base words; and

(v)        identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B)       demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i)         spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii)        spelling consonant changes, including (t) to (sh) such as in select and selection and (k) to (sh) such as music and musician;

(iii)       spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv)       spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v)        spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi)       spelling words with changes to base words when suffixes are added such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C)       write legibly in cursive.

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B)       use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C)       identify the meaning of words with affixes such as trans-, super-, -ive, and -logy and roots such as geo and photo; and

(D)       identify and explain the meaning of adages and puns.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)       evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)       write a response to compare and contrast ideas across a variety of sources;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G)       discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B)       analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C)       analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D)       analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of well-known children’s literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B)       explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C)       identify the elements of a play such as characters, dialogue, setting, acts, and scenes;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the central idea;

(ii)        features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding of text; and

(iii)       logical order and order of importance; and

(E)        recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i)         identifying the claim;

(ii)        explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii)       identifying the intended audience or reader.

(10)      Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       explain the author’s purpose and message within a text;

(B)       analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       analyze the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       describe how the author’s use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E)        identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F)        examine how the author’s use of language contributes to voice; and

(G)       explain the purpose of hyperbole and stereotyping.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B)       develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)         organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii)        developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C)       revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii)        irregular verbs;

Identify in sentences present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, future perfect verb tenses

 

(iii)       collective nouns;

(iv)       descriptive adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v)        adverbs that convey frequency and intensity;

(vi)       prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii)      indefinite pronouns;

(viii)     correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(ix)       capitalization of abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x)        punctuation marks, including commas in compound sentences and quotation marks in dialogue; and

(xi)       proper mechanics, including italics and underlining for titles and emphasis; and

(E)        publish own written work for appropriate audiences.

(12)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry;

(B)       compose informational texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(C)       compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D)       compose correspondence that requests information.

(13)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)       develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C)       identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D)       understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E)        demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F)        differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G)       develop a bibliography; and

(H)       use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

 

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