MY RECOMMENDATIONS – ELAR-TEKS SECOND READING – GRADES 6 – 8 — 3.4.17

Mar 5, 2017 by

“Pt. 2 of 2 — Texas Students Will Be Taught To Read, Write, & Spell – My Recommendations – ELAR/TEKS Grades 6 – 8”

By Donna Garner

3.5.17

 

 

 

To: Texas State Board of Education members, Texas Commissioner of Education, and Texas Education Agency staffers

Date:  3.5.17

From: Donna Garner

Re:  My recommendations regarding the ELAR/TEKS — Grades 5 through 8 — draft for Second Reading vote on April 21, 2017

 

 

At the Texas State Board of Education’s April 21, 2017, a final vote on the K through Grade 8 Second Reading of the English/ Language Arts / Reading TEKS (Texas’ curriculum standards) will be taken.

 

 

I am very thankful to be able to say that just as I found in K through Grade 5, the Grade 6 through 8 Second Reading document is very strong also.  Each of the ELAR/TEKS drafts has grown stronger over time; and with a few simple changes (as recommended in this report), I believe the final product will be exactly what Texas public school students need to help them to gain the knowledge and skills in ELAR to launch them into future success.

 

 

TO READ MY PREVIOUS COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ABOUT THE ELAR/TEKS — GRADES K THROUGH 5 — DRAFT FOR SECOND READING ON 4.21.17, PLEASE GO TO THIS LINK:  http://www.educationviews.org/elar-teks-reading-draft/

 

 

My comments and recommendations are highlighted in red and/or are italicized. My deletions are indicated by strikethroughs.

 

 

Again, I request that the SBOE members take my comments and recommendations seriously, turn them into amendments to the Second Reading draft, and pass the K through Grade 8 document on April 21, 2017. If this occurs, I believe that Texas will have the finest K – 8 ELAR curriculum standards in the entire country.

 

Donna Garner

Wgarner1@hot.rr.com

 

 

==============

 

 

Text of Proposed New 19 TAC

Chapter 110. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading

Subchapter B. Middle School (Grades 6 through 8)

 

[In my evaluations of K through Grade 5, I made some suggestions for the Introductory sections which I would like to see implemented appropriately into the Introductions in Grades 6 through 8 also. To see those suggestions, please see my K – 5 report posted at: http://www.educationviews.org/elar-teks-reading-draft/ ]

]

  • 110.21. Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading, Middle School, Adopted 2017.

(a)        The provisions of this section and §§110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented by school districts.

(b)       No later than August 31, 2018, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading as adopted in §§110.22-110.24 of this title.

(c)        If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, §§110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year and apply to the 2019-2020 and subsequent school years.

(d)       If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 31 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that §§110.22-110.24 of this title shall be implemented for the following school year.

(e)        Sections 110.18-110.20 of this title shall be superseded by the implementation of this section and §§110.22-110.24 of this title.

  • 110.22. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B)       follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C)       give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of the English language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D)       participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B)       use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C)       determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)       evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)       write a response with accurate text evidence to compare sources within and across genres;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)       discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)       respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I)         reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B)       analyze how the characters’ internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C)       analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D)       compare and contrast historical and cultural settings across texts.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B)       analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C)       identify the elements of a play, including acts, scenes, stage directions, and scripted dialogue;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii)        features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information of the text; and

(iii)       organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage; and

 

[I would like to see the word “argumentative” changed to “persuasive” text.  I believe that typical parents and teachers teach students not “to argue,” but the adults do want students to learn how to take a persuasive stance on an issue.  The connotation behind the word “argumentative” is a negative one while “persuasive” sounds more wholesome.  The word “argumentative” appears in several places in this document normally under (8) Multiple genres…]

 

(E)        recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative persuasive text by:

(i)         identifying the claim;

(ii)        explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii)       identifying the intended audience or reader.

(9)        Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       explain the author’s purpose and message within a text;

(B)       analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       analyze the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       describe how the author’s use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E)        identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F)        analyze how the author’s use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G)       identify and explain the differences between the use of hyperbole and sarcasm in texts.

(10)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B)       develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)         organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii)        developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C)       revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii)        consistent verb tenses;

 

present progressive, past progressive, future progressive, present emphatic, past emphatic verb tenses.

 

various types of linking verb phrases.

 

locating verb phrase.

 

(iii)      conjunctive adverbs;

(iv)       prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v)        indefinite pronouns;

(vi)       subordinating conjunctions such as after, because, although, and if to form complex sentences;

(vii)      capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii)     commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases;

(ix)       proper mechanics, including italics and underlining for titles and emphasis;

(x)        correct punctuation of dialogue; and

(xi)       correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its and it’s and affect and effect; and

(E)        publish own written work for appropriate audiences.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)       compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C)       compose multi-paragraph persuasive argumentative texts; and

(D)       compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)       develop and revise a plan;

(C)       refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D)       identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E)        differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F)        differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G)       examine sources for:

(i)         reliability;

(ii)        credibility and bias; and

(iii)       faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(H)       synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I)         display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J)        use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

  • 110.23. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others’ ideas;

(B)       follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

 

[We want all Texas students to become adept readers and writers — first and foremost.  They need to focus their energy on reading and writing about literary works instead of spending their time on films and dramatic productions. If given an escape route out of reading the great literary works, students might choose to watch films and dramatic productions instead.]

 

(C)       present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of the English language to communicate ideas effectively; and

 

(D)       engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B)       use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C)       determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent.

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)       evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)       write a response with accurate text evidence to compare sources within and across genres;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)       discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)       respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I)         reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B)       analyze how characters’ qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C)       analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D)       analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B)       analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C)       describe how playwright(s) develop characters through the dialogue and staging of their plays;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii)        graphic and text features; and

(iii)       organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories; and

(E)        recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i)         identifying the claim;

(ii)        explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii)       identifying the intended audience or reader.

(9)        Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       explain the author’s purpose and message within a text;

(B)       analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       analyze the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       describe how the author’s use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E)        identify the use of literary devices, including third -person limited and third-person omniscient point of view. subjective and objective point of view;

(F)        analyze how the author’s use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G)       identify and explain loaded language, strawmen, and ad hominem arguments.

(10)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B)       develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)         organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii)        developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C)       revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

 

identify three types of verbals in sentences — gerunds, participles, infinitives.

 

identify and compose examples of transitive active, transitive passive, intransitive linking, and intransitive complete verbs.

use the correct forms of verbs such as “to lie/to lay,” “to rise/to raise,” “to sit, to set.”

formulate sentences with future conditional and future perfect conditional verbs.

 

(i)         complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii)        consistent verb tenses;

(iii)       conjunctive adverbs;

(iv)       prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v)        relative pronouns;

(vi)       subordinating conjunctions such as since, while, and until to form complex sentences;

(vii)      correct capitalization;

(viii)     commas in compound and complex sentences and after transitions, introductory words, and phrases;

(ix)       semicolons when appropriate;

(x)        correct punctuation of dialogue and citation(s); and

(xi)       correct spelling; and

(E)        publish own written work for appropriate audiences.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)       compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C)       compose multi-paragraph persuasive argumentative texts; and

(D)       compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)       develop and revise a plan;

(C)       refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D)       identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E)        differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F)        differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G)       examine sources for:

(i)         reliability;

(ii)        credibility and bias; and

(iii)       faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(H)       synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I)         display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J)        use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

  • 110.24. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a)        Introduction.

(1)        The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, and writing through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author’s craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2)        The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3)        Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4)        English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student’s first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5)        Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student’s English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6)        Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7)        Statements that contain the word “including” reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase “such as” are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b)       Knowledge and skills.

(1)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, and discussion–oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A)       listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B)       follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C)       advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of English language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D)       participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

(2)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A)       use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B)       use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words; and

(C)       determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc.

(3)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4)        Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing–self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5)        Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to comprehend text with increasing depth and complexity. The student is expected to:

(A)       establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B)       generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C)       make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D)       create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E)        make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F)        make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G)       evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H)       synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I)         monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6)        Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A)       describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B)       write a response with accurate and relevant text evidence and commentary to compare texts within and across genres;

(C)       use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D)       paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E)        interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F)        respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G)       discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H)       respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I)         reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J)        defend or challenge authors’ claims using relevant text evidence.

(7)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       analyze relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, setting, and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B)       analyze how characters’ motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C)       analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D)       explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(8)        Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A)       demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B)       analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(C)       describe how playwright(s) develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(D)       recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i)         the controlling idea or thesis;

(ii)        footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii)       multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis; and

(E)        recognize characteristics and structures of persuasive argumentative text by:

(i)         identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii)        identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii)       identifying the intended audience or reader.

(9)        Author’s craft: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author’s craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A)       explain the author’s purpose and message within a text;

(B)       analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose;

(C)       analyze the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D)       describe how the author’s use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E)        identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F)        analyze how the author’s use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G)       identify and explain the use of rhetorical questions, bandwagon appeals, and sweeping generalizations.

(10)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A)       plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B)       develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i)         organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, paragraph-to-paragraph coherence, and a conclusion; and

(ii)        developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C)       revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D)       edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i)         complete complex and compound-complex sentences;

(ii)        consistent verb tenses;

(iii)       prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(iv)       relative pronouns;

(v)        correct capitalization;

(vi)       commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses;

(vii)      semicolons, colons, and parentheses when appropriate;

(viii)     correct punctuation of dialogue and citation(s); and

(ix)       correct spelling; and

(E)        publish own written work for appropriate audiences.

(11)      Composition: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts–genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A)       compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B)       compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement, genre characteristics, and craft;

(C)       compose multi-paragraph persuasive argumentative texts; and

(D)       compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12)      Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, and writing using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A)       generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B)       develop and revise a plan;

(C)       refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D)       identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E)        differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F)        differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G)       examine sources for:

(i)         reliability;

(ii)        credibility and bias, including omission; and

(iii)       faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(H)       synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(I)         display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J)        use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multi-modal, to present results.

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